Endnotes

[1]

Robert Jenson, Systematic Theology , vol. I.

[2]

Frithjof Schuon, Understanding Islam (Bloomington, Indiana: World Wisdom Books, 1994), 1.

[3]

Hugh Talat Halman, “We Have Found Muhammad, a Prophet Like Moses”: How Comparisons between Muhammad and Musa in the Qur`an and Sira Reflect the Hermeneutics of Genre (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Master`s Thesis, 1993), 76.

[4]

Qur`an 4:153, 11:96, 23:45, 28:35, 44:19, 51:38, 40:23.

[5]

See Encyclopaedia Britannica Online , under [Pharaoh].

[6]

Ibn al-�Arabi, The Bezels of Wisdom , R. W. J. Austin, trans. (New York, Ramsey, New Jersey, Toronto: Paulist Press, 1980), 249-266. The Arabic title of this chapter is Hikma `uluwiyyah fi kalimah Musawiyyah .

[7]

Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi, Fusus al-hikam , Abu al-`Ala al-`Afifi, ed. (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-`Arabi, 1980), 213. My translation.

[8]

Asad, M.(1997) The Message of the Qur’an . Gibraltar, Spain: Dar Al-Andalus.

[9]

Hasan, M. and S.A. Usmani. (1989) Al-Qur’an Al-Kareem, wa-Tarjamatu Ma’ania wa-Tafseer ila-Lughat-il-Urdiyyah . Medina, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd Qur’an Printing Complex.

[10]

While what follows is scriptural reasoning, these reflections also are testing the scriptural viability of the expressivist view in recent penal theory. For a philosophical articulation of this view, see R. A. Duff, Trials and Punishments (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

[11]

Broadly speaking, I think that my view is close to the views of Basit Koshul and Ahmed Afzaal, and all of us agree on the rationality of the plagues to a certain point. I find it fascinating, however, that the killing of the firstborn is not a part of the Qur`anic narrative, as this difference certainly leads to different hermeneutical and ethical issues for the three traditions.

[12]

Of course Protestants have generally acknowledged the relative authority of the Catholic tradition(s), simply distinguishing scripture from what is not scripture. Occasionally, one sees a more responsible characterization in the phrase, scriptura suprema over sola scriptura .

[13]

Note the remarkable statement in Exodus 7:1 “The Lord said to Moses, `See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet.`”

[14]

But see Rashi there (or his source, Baba Kama 92a) for a different explanation relevant to our discourse.